Activities and Programmes


Improving productivity is a major objective of the KVK.  The factors like previous crop, sowing time, planting distance, soil type, source of irrigation, intercrop mixed crop and topography mainly affects the productivity of the crops.  However, in case of animal husbandry and dairying enterprise, the factors like breeding, feeding, health care and other management are the factors affecting the yield of milk, meat and eggs production.

In order to improve the productivity of crops and animals, KVK has carried out different activities as per the mandates.

            Before implementation of activities, KVK has continuously given major thrust on assessment of Problems, Opportunities, Issues and Needs (POIN) of the farming community.  Prior to finalization of annual action plan, KVK has analyzed the gaps in adoption of technologies and also collected the information about reasons behind the gap in adoption of technologies.

            After diagnosis of the problem, identification of technology intervention is done and the activities are prioritized.  So that necessary action plan for each year can be implemented.  A cluster village approach has been adopted for implementation of the activities.  The representative agro ecological situation of the district was the basis while selecting the villages.  Similarly before conducting the activities, a benchmark survey was also conducted to record the socio-economic conditions of the villages.  Similarly, for effective implementation of the programme, a group approach was an important methodology for which Farmers Clubs and SHGs were established.  Identification of the beneficiaries for training, demonstration, OFTs and other extension activities was done through these groups.  This has helped to get a favorable response from the farming community.



Most of the on campus trainings were conducted for imparting the skills and to give more practical training through the instructional units established by the KVK.  Improving productivity and self-employment generation was the basic objective behind the on campus skill oriented training programmes.  Off campus trainings were conducted in the villages particularly on the farmers field where the method demonstration as well as technological output shown to the trainees.  The field of the innovative farmers of the groups is the venue to conduct off campus training programmes.  Total 885 training programmes were conducted to practicing farmers in the villages.  On an average 1750 trainees were trained through 63 training programmes every year with 11 per cent SC/ST beneficiaries.  Similarly 39 on campus training programmes were conducted for 894 rural youths specially for imparting the technology related to improving productivity. 

            After training programmes, necessary inputs, services and consultancies were made available by the KVK so that the technology adoption could be improved.   Similarly a regular follow up through the groups has also helped to increase the adoption of technology.  Training programmes are based on the local needs and are more practical oriented utilizing audio visual  aids and teaching material. The necessary back up support through group organization has helped to disseminate the technology much faster among the farming community.

            Most of the training programmes were interlinked with the demonstration and trials that were conducted to extend solution to the location specific problems and to improve the productivity.  Similarly some programmes were focused to reduce the cost of production, ensure natural resource management particularly soil and water besides improving quality of the produce.  Where as some programmes were focused to diversify the agriculture based on market demand and local resources available.


Vocational Training Programmes for Self-Employment Generation

Employment generation through vocational training is a major mandate of the KVK.  KVK has emphasized on four categories for imparting trainings i.e. agriculture, agro processing, agro based enterprises and non-farm sector.

In order to implement this activity, KVK has developed eleven instructional units for imparting skill and practical training.    Besides technical skill, KVK has also provided managerial skill so that the trainees can also build up confidence of management of the enterprise.

Vocational skills were extended through 125 vocational training programmes for 1015 rural youths as a result of which the employment was generated for an average of 132 days/year through the start of different enterprises.  Due to these courses, the annual income of 1015 rural youths has been estimated to be around Rs. 114 lakh i.e. Rs. 11,227/annum per trainee.  More than 50 per cent women have got employment through the courses who have also taken advantage of SHGs market network. The duration of the vocational training ranges from 3 days to 45 days. Spirulina production technology was introduced for first time by the KVK and has received a favourable response from the trainees.  Through 11 training programmes, 278 trainees were trained from 28 districts from Maharashtra and adjoining states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat.  Various sections of the community have attended the training programmes. The vocational course has resulted in employment generation for 38 youths.  Through these trainees, the KVK has further disseminated the spirulina production technology. Mushroom production was also a new concept initiated by the KVK and for more adoption of this technology spawn production and market network was developed by the KVK.


Vocational Trainings Conducted Based on Needs and Demand

Sr. No.




Employment Generation

Mandays generated/ year


Spirulina production and processing






Mushroom production






Nursery management






Fruits and vegetable processing






Bakery production






Vermicompost making






Poultry farming






Goat management












Non-farm sector












Fashion designing






Beauty Parlor






Kit making












Grand Total






























KVK has developed two master trainers in the mushroom production and through their contact mushroom production has been introduced in the district.  District level mushroom growers association has also been formed.  In case of bakery production, 12 trainees have started commercial bakery units as they received the practical training on production as well as marketing at KVK's bakery unit.  In these units, they have further employed about 30 to 40 employees.  As the KVK has a fully functional audio visual aids production unit with the requisite expertise, a basic photography course was also conducted as per the demand.  This course has received a good response due to maximum self-employment generation.  With the changing lifestyle of the rural area, the KVK has also conducted vocational training programmes especially for women on fashion designing, beauty parlor and kit making.  The skill imparted through these courses was able to provide employment generation opportunities to 394 women with maximum man-days.  Similarly some master trainers were also developed in this area through which KVK is now conducting these courses in different villages.

            To increase the employment generation, besides training, KVK has also developed the linkages of the trainees with Banks, DRDA, DIC, NABARD and other development departments.  KVK has also provided support to prepare the proposals for financial support from the concerned departments.


Training to Extension Functionaries

            Replication of technologies among the farming communities through extension functionaries of line departments and NGO is also an important mandate of KVK.   The KVK has tried to give more emphasis on faster dissemination of recently developed technologies through the extension functionaries.

            Prior to implementation of training programmes for extension functionaries KVK has identified their needs of skills and knowledge related to communication of technologies and techniques.   Necessary information and feedback was collected from the line departments while developing the action plan.  Both the technical information and management tools were included in the training programme.  Apart from the recommendations of NARS, the results obtained from different FLDs and OFTs were also included in the course curriculum so that the location specific technologies can be transferred to farmers through these extension functionaries.  Different extension methodologies, practical experience sharing and new topics of training have helped to seek a good response from the extension functionaries.


Discipline-wise Training Programmes Conducted

Sr. No.


No.of courses

No.of trainees





Crop Production












Plant Protection






Veterinary Science






Home Science






Soil Science






Agriculture Extn.












Extension Functionaries

            Due to these training programmes KVK has been able to spread the technology enmass for the rural population.

            The technology like organic farming, sustainable sugarcane production, IPM and INM in major crops, drumstick cultivation, fig cultivation, export oriented production, soil health management, foliar and soluble fertigation, post harvest management, micro irrigation and its maintenance, agribusiness management, empowerment of women through SHGs are some of the concepts and technologies spread in larger area through the extension functionaries.  Similarly the concepts developed by KVK like group dynamics, use of ICT in agriculture, organic farming were widely adopted by the line departments.  In these programme, KVK has become a resource center not only for the district but for the state also.  The master trainers developed by the KVK have become the trainers for the line departments and the success stories developed are widely spread due to intervention of line departments.  There is a greater degree of integration and coordination among the line departments and the KVK due to the training of extension functionaries.


Front Line Demonstrations


 Oilseeds and Pulses



Area (ha)

No.of farmers

Av. increase in yield (%)


JS-335,PK-472, MACS-450, INM





ICGS-11, TAG-24, TG-26, INM










Vijay, Virat, IPM






            KVK has introduced Soybean as a major kharif crop during the year 1993 in the operational area.  Use of rhizobium, foliar nutrient management, use of potash to increase the yield, seed production and harvesting at proper time were some of the interventions along with demonstrations of the new varieties have helped to adopt soybean as a major income source during kharif. This has resulted in bajra being replaced by soybean up to 30 to 40 per cent in the district.

            The area under soybean has increased in the sugarcane blocks like Rahata, Shrirampur, Kopargaon, Rahuri, Newasa and Nagar.  Use of biofertilizers for seed treatments and foliar application of plant nutrients are widely adopted technologies due to the KVKs intervention.



            Groundnut is a major oilseed crop grown in the district.  It is mainly cultivated in summer season in the parts of Newasa, Rahuri, Parner, Akola, Shrigonda tehsils of the district. The varieties like ICGS-11, TAG-24, TG-26 have shown significant performance in increasing yield over traditional variety SB-11.  The farmers are adopting the technological options like use of biofertilizers, foliar grades, micronutrients and water management. The seed village concept has been initiated by the KVK in order to multiply the seeds of improved varieties.



            The area under red gram has declined mainly due to heavy infestation of pod borer and optional crops like soybean during the kharif season. ICPL-87 variety is commonly used due to its short duration character where wheat can be easily taken during rabi after red gram.  The crop losses due to pod borer is observed up to 70 to 80 per cent, therefore, major focus was given only on IPM.  The techniques like use of pheromone traps, seed treatment with trichoderma, use of mixed crops, use of botanical extracts like neem, bioagents like NPV have been adopted by the farmers.


Bengal gram

            Helicoverpa infestation, wilt attack and use of old varieties were the main factors responsible for low productivity.  FLD was conducted mainly for demonstration of high yielding varieties and IPM for pest and disease management.



Cotton is grown in both the irrigated and rainfed farming situations.  The area under rainfed farming situation is higher than irrigated situation in the district.  The parts of Kopargaon, Shrirampur, Newasa taluka and whole Shevagaon, Pathardi talukas comes under rain fed situations.  During the year 1997-98 KVK has started to conduct demonstrations in cotton.  Total 452 demonstrations were conducted on 229 ha area.  The cotton growers have mainly adopted integrated crop and nutrients management practices.  The average increase in yield is 30.43 per cent.

            Summer irrigated cotton was commonly grown in the district where bollworm attack was the major factor for decline in the yield level.  IPM concept was implemented to reduce this problem.  With the introduction of Bt cotton, the bollworm problem has declined to significant extent. Similarly, due to early maturity, crop has shifted from summer to kharif season and has become an important cash crop in irrigated as well as rain fed situation.

            However, sucking pests and major and micro nutrient deficiencies were some of the new emerging problems.  Similarly, poor canopy, plant growth and plant population were also important issues addressed to improve the crop yield.  While considering the prevalent problems, new concepts and technologies were demonstrated through FLD cotton.  Sucking pest and reddening of the leaves were some of the major problems solved that has shown an increase in yield by 30 to 35 per cent.  The horizontal spread of technology has been observed to be good.  Similarly, planting distance and plant geometry were also shown through the OFTs and as per suitability of intercultivation, the technology adoption has also been observed to be good.  Incorporation of cotton residue back into the soil after harvest through rotavator, intercultivation through hand hoe and aero blast sprayer are some of the new implements that are demonstrated to the farmers.

FLD Other than Oilseeds, Pulses and Cotton

            FLD programme was focused on major commodities of the district and the technologies available were used to solve the problems.  Before conducting FLD, problem diagnosis and prioritization of the activities is being done by each discipline.   KVK has collected the data on gaps in adoption of recommended technologies, reasons behind non-adoption of technologies, problems of low yield in the operational villages.  For the collection of information, the members of Prayog Pariwar, Farmers Clubs and SHGs were involved. 

            During analysis of collected data, as well as group discussion and meeting, it was observed that the factors like sowing time, planting distance, soil type, previous crops, source of irrigation, cropping system, pest and diseases, application of nutrients

are some of the factors affecting the yield of crops.  In case of animal husbandry and dairying, the factors like improper breeding, feeding, health and management practices affect the productivity. The planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and documentation were carried out with the help of members of Farmers Clubs and SHGs.  Field days, training and mass communication methods were adopted for horizontal spread of the technologies.


Crop Production


No.of demonstrations

Technology demonstrated





Use of growth regulators, trichogramma and

pheromone traps for management of shoot borer



Use of vermicompost, varietal performance, cropping system and spray fertilizers



High yielding variety i.e. Saburi



Use of bioagents and traps for pest management of helicoverpa







Use of neem oil for management of sucking pest,

trichoderma for wilt management, soil and leaf test based nutrient management, IPM, foliar K and vermiwash spray for on quality production



IPM particularly organic inputs



Regulation of excessive shoot growth by using CCC.



Petiole test based nutrients management, INM,

verticilium to control mealy bugs



Varietal performance in light soil



Use of botanical pesticides for sucking pests,

trichoderma for wilt and bioagents for heliothis management



To control flower drop through foliar nutrients, use of pheromone traps and water traps for shoot borer management



Varietal performance, use of trichoderma and neem oil, sticky traps + biopesticies to control sucking pests, aluminum silicate



Effect of HaNPV to control helicoverpa



Root rot management through trichoderma,

Rakshak trap to control fruit fly and GA to increase yield



Effect of neemark for control of caterpillars

Bottle guards


Nematode management through paecilomyces





Animal Husbandry

HF Cow


Control of ecto and endo parasites, deworming



Upgradation of poultry through Giriraja, RIR,

Use of improved waterers and feederers



Up-gradation through Osmanabadi, Boer



Performance of varieties of fish



Cowpea, lucerne, oat and guinny grass




Home Science

Fruit Processing


Raisin preparation, fruit and vegetable preservatives

Food processing


Soybean processing and use of value addition, milk processing

Health and nutritional garden


Production of nutritional vegetables, fruits and spirulina etc.



Quality compost production through Easiania foetida



Use of Giiraja in backyard poultry, production of local feed

Fuel and cooking


Use of ahunik chullah and solar cooker in cooking




Grand total





            Through FLD programme, the drumstick crop was widely adopted in the district as well as in the state.  More than 2000 ha. area was brought under drumstick commercial cultivation directly through the KVKs inputs like technology, seed and seedlings.         

            IPM demonstration for different horticulture crops has given good impact which can be seen from increasing demand of the IPM inputs supply (neem oil, traps, bio-agents) at KVK as well as private agro service centers.  Foliar feeding of nutrients on various crops, soil and tissue analysis based nutrients management, planting methods of sugarcane and adoption of new varieties have been achieved due to FLD programme.  Introduction of Giriraja bird for backyard poultry, Osmanabadi and Boer goat, new fodder crops and demonstration of different formulation of botanicals for control of ecto-endo parasites could help to increase the income of the farmers.  The SHGs are more involved in animal husbandry activities. The Home Science discipline has implemented on farm related activities along with catering to the health and nutrition aspects of the family.

            FLD programme has helped to reach an increasing number of farming community as the results of which the results of FLDs were disseminated at a faster pace among the maximum farming community.


Technology Assessment and Refinement (TAR)

Technology Assessment and Refinement (TAR) is one of the most important mandate of the KVK for which On Farm Trials are being conducted.  The main objective behind TAR is to provide location specific technology to location specific problems for the sustainability of agriculture.

            On farm trials are normally conducted for assessment of proven technology if present technology do not work in particular situation or are implemented for fine tuning the technology under various farming situations for understanding its suitability in the farmers field.

            Prior to implementation of any OFT, the KVK usually identifies the area under particular commodity and intensity of the problems in the particular farming situation. The concerned SMS studies the factors responsible for the problem.  The problem diagnosis is being done by the SMS by involving the farming community and adopting PRA tools.  The problem is further discussed with the farmers as well as SAU/Research Station Scientists in identifying the technological options.  Similarly results of trials and experiments at national/international level indicating solution to such problems are also being studied to give the technological option to solve their problems.   The recommendation of the NARS is also being tried for addressing the problem by fine-tuning the existing recommendations in the OFT programme.  During the OFTs, different observations are being recorded based on the objectives of the OFT.  TAR programme is being conducted for three years continuously and the results of the TAR are being communicated to research and extension system.  For conducting of OFTs, Innovative Farmers Clubs established by the KVK are being fully involved and the results are being discussed with the members of Farmers Clubs and SHGs.

            During the trials, observations are being recorded as per the problem.  Processing of recorded observations and results are carried out by applying suitable methods.  The feedback is also received through various medias.  While conducting OFTs, KVK utilizes the resource of experimental members of the Innovative Farmers Clubs.  The results obtained through OFTs is also shared in the meeting of the members of Innovative Farmers Club for its dissemination among the member-to-member farmers.


Crop Production

Sugarcane - Total 14 OFTs involving 74 farmers were conducted focusing the different planting methods, IPM and INM practices.  The paired row, long furrow, and broad furrow method of planting of sugarcane has shown significant results against the conventional ridges and furrow.  The use of 20 pheromone traps and 18,000 eggs parasitoids of trichogramma are found to be effective against control of shoot and stem borer of sugarcane.   Chelated ferrous @ 25 kg, Zinc @ 12.5 kg, and Magnesium @ 12.5 kg along with 18:18:18 (NPK spray grade) @ 2.5 kg + FeSO4 @ 1.25 kg per ha. as foliar spray are found to be effective for control of iron chlorosis in calcareous soil.

Wheat - Total five OFTs with 25 farmers were conducted, especially for refinement on plant nutrition management. Total 75% of recommended dose of fertilizers + foliar application of 18:18:18, 5:40:28 and 7:7:42 @ 2.5 kg per ha with vermiwash 10 lit in 500 lit. of water is found to be effective to improve the yield in saline and alkaline soil apart from saving in fertilizers use.

Soybean One OFT with nine farmers was conducted to control the problem of severe attack of spodoptera.  Spraying of nomuraea rileyii @ 5kg/ha in 200 lit of water at 30 DAS effectively controlled spodoptera.

Red gram - Three OFTs with 18 farmers were conducted to test the various combination of botanical pests against heliothis.  Use of 3% chilli + garlic extract and neem based pesticides in 200 lit. of water was found to be effective against control of pod borer. 

Cotton - The recommended practice of 3 x 3 ft. spacing is not suitable to farmers due to which farmers are using 4 x 4 ft. spacing to Bt cotton.  With different planting geometry, KVK has implemented an OFT with 4 x 2 paired row spacing, which is suitable for intercultivation as well as higher yield.



Tomato Eight OFTs were conducted on 59 farmers with special emphasis on INM and IPM.  Foliar application of 18:18:18 @ 2.5 kg/ha, 13:40:13 @ 2.5 kg/ha against flower drop in calcareous soil gave good results.  Similarly use of vermiwash @ 10 lit/ha in 500 lit of water was also found to be effective in improving the fruit setting.  Soil application of humic acid @ 3.75 kg/ha in three equal split at 30,45 and 60 DAT is found to be effective to increase yield.  Spray of perfekt (botanical extract) at 7 days interval @ 1 ml/lit of water is found to be effective for management of leaf curl virus.

Onion - Four OFTs were conducted on 24 farmers field particularly for conducting OFT on IPM and INM.    A spray of Ipomea fistula @ 1.5% leaf decoction with trap crop, neem oil 3ml/lit is found to be effective in reducing thrips infestation by 75-80%.  Foliar application of 18:18:18, 13:40:13 and 6:12:36 @ 2.5 kg/ha during 30,45 and 60 DAT with vermiwash @ 10 lit/ha is found to be effective for improving bulb size. Spraying 1% leaf extract of mundulea suberosa reduced the thrips infestation by 90%.

Cabbage/Cauliflower -   Three OFTs with 18 farmers were conducted for control of diamond back moth.  The spray of Ipomea leaf extract @ 1.5% with trap crop and use of pheromone traps is found to be effective. The use of beauveria bassiana @3kg/ha is found to be effective for control DBM.

Brinjal -  One OFT was conducted with 2% custard apple seed extract spray for control of fruit and shoot borer under irrigated farming situation and found to be most effective.

Grapes -  Three OFTs were conducted with 19 farmers. The spray of verticilium lecanii @ 5kg/ha is found to be effective against mealy bugs under irrigated farming situation.  The use of soluble potash improves the TSS level for export quality berries @5gm/lit of water under potassium stress conditions during crop growth.

Pomegranate  OFT was implemented with six farmers. The use of organic slurry and 400:250:250 gm NPK/plant is found to be effective for better flowering and quality of fruits improving the fertilizer use efficiency under calcareous soils.

Guava Four OFTs were conducted with 30 farmers. Vermicompost @5kg/plant along with foliar application of 0.1% FeSO4 + ZnSO4 gave good control of leaf reddening and improvement in quality of fruits during marketing. Foliar K application @5gm/lit + vermiwash @ 20 ml/lit of water is found to be suitable for improvement in yield and quality.  Use of Ethylene absorbent scrubber with modified atmospheric packaging liner for carton is found to increase the shelf life of guava fruit for distant markets.



Health and Nutrition

Three OFTs were conducted with 30 women and children.  Spirulina consumption @ 3gm/day for three months is found to improve weight gain and blood hemoglobin level in undernourished and anemic children and women.  The use of sprouted moth bean powder @50gm/day/child is also found to improve the weight as low cost option.


Animal Husbandry

Goat Four OFTs were conducted with 24 farmers. Oral dose of Exinot liquid @25ml/goat prevented external and internal parasites.  Osmanabadi goat has perfomed well with improved weight gain and twinning percentage.

Poultry Six OFTs were conducted with 42 farmers.  Giriraja is found to be better option for backyard poultry.  RIR is found to be good for eggs as well as meat purpose.

Crossbred Cows Seven OFTs were conducted basically for nutrition management and control of endo-ecto parasites. Shatawari feeding @20gm/day is found to improve the milk yield under fodder deficient conditions.  Similarly use of unhali leaf extract (Tephrosia purpurea) and use of aloevera extract as well as butox reduced the infestation of ecto parasites.

Feeding of Azolla @ 2kg/day with 75 per cent recommended concentrate feed improves fat percent by 0.3% and milk yield by 3-4 lit/day/cow.

Total 79 OFTs were conducted with 506 farmers and farmwomen and the results were further demonstrated and transferred among the farmers through different programmes of KVK.  The results were discussed in various scientific meetings and seminars.  While training to extension functionaries, due care was also taken to extend the refined technology for further dissemination.


Extension Activities


KVK is organizing various extension activities for dissemination of the technologies developed under demonstrations and OFTs.  Due to organization of extension activities, the outreach of the KVK has increased.  Similarly the farmers who do not have the benefit of training, demonstration and OFTs were also benefited through these activities.  KVK has given major focus on activities and consultancy services on daily basis.  On an average 20 to 30 farmers are visiting KVK to seek the advisory and consultancy services.  Till date 58,492 farmers have been benefited through 574 various programmes.

Total 70 field days were conducted to highlight the outcome of the FLDs.  The technologies like performance of high-yielding varieties, IPM, INM practices were explained and shown through field days.             KVK is organizing annually two to three kisan mela as well as mahila mela.  From the last four years, KVK has taken initiative to organize annual meet of members of Farmers Clubs and SHGs to share the experience among themselves.  Total 53 Kisan mela were organized benefiting more than twenty two thousand farmers and farmwomen.

 KVK is organizing different activities, like exposure visits, group discussions, workshop and seminars, ex-trainees meet, exhibitions in the campus mainly for the members of the Farmers Club and SHGs where technologies are being demonstrated to other farmers through these members.  These programmes are found to be very effective in convincing the farmer groups and further disseminate the technology among the group members.

KVK has participated in 19 state level and 4 national level exhibitions.  In these exhibitions KVK has received best stall award and appreciation certificate in recognition of its multifarious activities.  The KVK has been able to reach up to 10 to 15 lakh farmers through these exhibitions.  In both the national conference of the KVK, various innovative activities implemented by the KVK was exhibited.


 KVK has organized two state level seminars on organic farming and drumstick production technology.  Both these seminars have helped to introduce new concepts in the state and the impact was also seen by development of policies like adoption of organic farming programme and considering the drumstick crop as an important crop by the development department.


Utilization of Mass Media

Sr. No.




Radio - KVK Scientists

           - Contact farmers




Television - KVK Scientists

                 - Contact farmers




Articles published in

-         Newspapers

-         Magazine





News published in newspapers



TV Shows organized



Magazine published by KVK


32 volumes

64,000 copies


Concept papers presented by KVK Programme Coordinator at national and international seminars and workshops

13 (includes use of ICT, organic farming, group dynamics and applied biotechnology)


Various mass media have played a key role in dissemination of technologies from the KVK.  The major contribution is made by All India Radio particularly Ahmednagar and Pune.  The live phone in programme (Hallo Baliraja) and Shetishala (Farmer Field School) have become more popular programmes among the farmers of the district where the KVK is making major contribution.  Similarly Krishi Adalat, an innovative concept suggested by KVK was also started by AIR, Ahmednagar and is getting good response.

Television is another media where KVK has received significant response especially from Doordarshan, ETV and MI Marathi.

            KVK has started own publication i.e. Krishi Vrutta, quarterly magazine.  From last eight years KVK has successfully published 32 volumes and brought out 64,000 copies.  NABARD, Regional Office, Pune has supported the KVK from last three years for circulation of Krishi Vrutta among the 1000 Farmers Clubs throughout Maharashtra state which has indirectly benefited more than 20,000 farmers in the state.

            KVK also published three books i.e. Sustainable sugarcane production, Organic farming and Spirulina production, which have been circulated to more than 30,000 farmers.  Similarly, more than 2,00,000 copies of folders/pamphlets on various issues were prepared and distributed to the farmers.  KVK has also developed seven digital CDs on various issues and concepts benefiting thousand of farmers.